雅思阅读:各种复杂的省略现象

2011-05-18 雅思阅读

  文章要做到简洁,省略法(Ellipsis)是必用的。 

  英语句子中的某些成分因上下文已提供了充分明确的信息而不必出现,或前面已出现的某些成分,为了避免不必要的重复,可以不再出现而不致引起误解或歧义,这种语言现象就叫作省略。例如:Glad to see you. 这是个简单句,主语I和谓语am可以省略。再如:London is on the Themes,and Paris on the Seine. 这是一个并列复合句,后半句省略了谓语动词is,因为前面已经出现过,后面不必重复。英译汉时,为了使译文明确达意,符合汉语习惯,要在正确理解原文的基础上,对原文中省略的部分或保留或补全,或对其进行灵活处理。 

  有人将英语句子中的省略现象归纳为21种,本章只涉及在英语阅读中常遇到的比较复杂的省略现象。 

  1. The transcription needs a certain amount of editing,as even if the computer can tell the difference between words of similar sounds such as write and right,it is still not yet able to do the work as well as an intelligent secretary. 

  第一层:The transcription 主 needs 谓 a certain amount of 定 editing,宾 as even if the computer can tell the difference between words of similar 状语从句  sounds such as write and right, it is still not yet able to do the work as well as an intelligent secretary. 

  第二层:(状语从句)as 引 even if the computer can tell the difference between words of similar sounds such as write and right,状语从句1 it 主 is 系 still not yet 状 able 表 to do the work 宾 as well as an inte- lligent secretary . 状语从句2 

  第三层:(状语从句1)even if 引 the computer 主 can tell 谓 the difference 宾 between words of similar sounds 定 such as write and right 同位语 

  (状语从句2)as well as 引 an intelligent secretary 主

  要点 本句中as引导原因状语从句,其中该句还带有一个由even if引导的让步状语从句;介词短语between words of similar sounds修饰difference,such as write and right修饰words,as well as……为同等比较状语从句,其中省略了与主句相同的部分。intelligent:有才智的;理解力强的。 

  译文 译稿需要一定量的编辑工作,因为,即使计算机能够区别同音异义词,如 write和right,它仍不可能把这项工作做得像有思维能力的秘书那样好。 

  2. If a needle is thrown at random on a sheet of paper ruled with lines whose distance apart is exactly equal to the length of the needle,how often can it be expected to fall on a line and how often into a blank space? 

  第一层:If a needle is thrown at random on a sheet of paper ruled with lines whose distance apart is exactly equal to the len- 状语从句 gth of the needle,how often 状 can 谓 it 主 be expected 谓 to fall on a line 宾 and 连 how often 状 into a blank space?状 

  第二层:(状语从句)If 引 a needle 主 is 系 thrown 表 at random 状 on a sheet of paper 状 ruled with lines 定 whose distance apart is exactly equal to the length of the needle 定语从句 

  第三层:(定语从句)whose 引 distance apart 主 is 系 exactly 状 equal 表 to the length of the needle 宾 

  要点 这是复合句。在if引导的状语从句中,ruled with lines 是过去分词,作paper 的定语,whose……needle 是 lines 的定语从句,whose distance apart 的意思是“它们之间的间隔”。主句中and 后面是个省略句,省去了 can it be expected to fall.翻译时可将英文的被动语态译成汉语的主动语态。length:长度。rule paper with lines:在纸上划平行线。 

  译文 如果把一根针随机地投到一张纸上,纸上画了许多平行线,它们之间的间隔等于针的长度,那么针落在线上的几率是多少?落在空白处的几率又是多少?

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